THE MEMORY OF THE CITY
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Laní Ethika
Nouns IV
The -o declension
The Sarasí -o declension is more complicated than either the -e or -a declension, as it contains nouns from all grammatical genders. Originally, it signified something cultivated or civilized in Ksreskézaian languages, so it has always contained a spectrum of proper nouns of both sexes, as well as most inanimate objects that are considered artificial. In this last capacity, it complements the 'supernatural' -a feminine, although many supernatural feminine nouns have cognates in a different Oksirapho declension pattern, the 'obscure' declension. Aside from new name coinages, the set of feminine -o nouns is closed (non-expanding) in Lilitika, and these can be identified as female Ksreskézaians and their possessions.

Masculine nouns


'True' masculine nouns include:

  • male people
  • male animals
  • mass groups of people that are mostly male
  • possessions of males that would otherwise be mundane neuter objects
  • things with a deliberate male character (e.g. men's clothing and statues of men)
  • variants of objects that are perceived as more masculine than their alternatives (e.g. a large serving bowl or plate is more masculine than a small bowl or cup)
  • war

  • Artificial nouns


    These include:

  • created objects and materials
  • concepts relating to government and the economy
  • domesticated animals of indeterminate or irrelevant gender

  • Cultivated feminine nouns


    These are:

  • female Ksreskézai and their possessions, etc.
  • the emotions 'cruelty' and 'terror'
  • objects made of glass (if they would normally be mundane artificial nouns)

  • Forming an o-declension noun


    -oMasculineArtificialCultivated Feminine
    casemeaningsingularpluralsingularpluralsingularplural
    n.this does-o-oi-o-oi-o-ai
    ac.do this-ôn-(ô)noi-ôn-(ô)noi-ôn-(ô)nai
    v.addressee-(ê)-(y)oi*-(ê)-(y)oi*-(ê)-(y)oi*
    ab.from this-(ô)fo-(ô)vin-(ô)fo-(ô)vin-(ô)fo-(ô)vin
    l.at this-os-(ô)soi-os-(ô)soi-os-(ô)sai
    d.to/for this-(ô)kôl-(ô)koi-(ô)kôl-(ô)koi-(ô)kan-(ô)kai
    g.of this-oní-iní-oní-ilí-oní-iní
    n. c.be this-(o)ho-(o)hoi-(o)ho-(o)hoi-(o)ho-(o)hai
    a. c.make into this-(hô)n-(ô)nhoi-(hô)n-(ô)nhoi-(hô)n-(ô)nhai
    i.with this-(ô)wo-(ô)woi-(ô)wo-(ô)woi-(ô)wa-(ô)wai
    e.since this-(ô)pos-(ô)pos-(ô)pes-(ô)pes-(ô)pas-(ô)pas
    tem.during this-(ô)to-(ô)ltoi-(ô)to-(ô)ltoi-(ô)ta-(ô)tlai
    term.until this-(ô)kos-(ô)kos-(ô)kes-(ô)kes-(ô)kas-(ô)kas

    * Unlike other parenthesized letters in this chart, the (y) in this entry disappears after a consonant.

    There is a version of this table with the duplicates removed in the reference grammar; you may find this easier to memorize instead, as it highlights repeated forms. (But note that it is organized differently.)

    Examples:
    -ogegloko (war)galselío (civil services station)etesso (echo)
    casemeaningsingularpluralsingularpluralsingularplural
    n.this doesgeglokogeglokoigalselíogalselíoietessoetessai
    ac.do thisgeglokôngeglokônoigalselíôngalselínoietessônetessônai
    v.addresseegeglokêgeglokoigalselígalselíoi†etessêetessoi
    ab.from thisgeglokôfogeglokôvingalselífogalselívinetessôfoetessôvin
    l.at thisgeglokosgeglokôsoigalselíosgalselísoietessosetessôsai
    d.to/for thisgeglokkôl**geglokkoi**galselíkôlgalselíkoietessôkanetessôkai
    g.of thisgeglokonígeglokinígalselíonígalselílíetessoníetessiní
    n. c.be thisgeglokohogeglokohoigalselíhogalselíhoietessohoetessohai
    a. c.make into thisgeglokôhôn*geglokônhoigalselíngalselínhoietessôhôn*etessônhai
    i.with thisgeglokwogeglokwoigalselíwogalselíwoietessôwaetessôwai
    e.since thisgeglokôposgeglokôposgalselípesgalselípesetessôpasetessôpas
    tem.during thisgeglokôtogeglokôltoigalselítogalselíltoietessôtaetessôtlai
    term.until thisgeglokkos**geglokkosgalselíkesgalselíkesetessôkasetessôkas

    * See note in Nouns II regarding s- + ha; the inserted vowel is silent.
    ** This doubled k represents an elided "okôkô"/"okôko" pattern to avoid reduplication.
    † 'y' disappears after í; see Basics II

    Vocabulary


    Memorize the following masculine nouns:
  • .

  • Memorize the following artificial nouns:
  • .

  • Memorize the following cultivated feminine nouns:
  • .

  • Exercises


    1. Form the following in Lilitika using the o-declension (ignoring articles):
      • .
      • .

    2. Translate the following into English:
      • .
      • .

    3. Identify the gender, case, and inflection scheme of the following:
      • .
      • .