Nouns I Cases
Lilitika is an inflected language, which means that in order to form words correctly in a sentence, the spelling and pronunciation changes slightly with context. English, by contrast, is a very inflectionally poor language, using only a handful of suffices (such as -(e)s for plurals or -ing for imperfect verbs) in order to communicate how the sentence fits together. For the most part, it relies on word order to determine what adjectives and nouns mean what, or even if the speaker is asking a question. Furthermore, we use prepositions, such as "on" or "at", in order to convey things like location, destination, or time of occurrence. Lilitika also has a preposition system, but it is not required as often as English's is. (We will discuss them in the chapter Prepositions.)

Each different role a word can adopt in a sentence is called a case by linguists. To understand the grammar of a language properly, you must know the cases it uses and what meanings they convey. We will use the following sentence for our examples in Sarasí:

Sarah, I walk Jane's dogs in the park out of guilt for her with a passion, from the forest to the river, from dawn till dusk every day.



Exercises


  1. Identify the roles of each noun in the sentence, and their corresponding cases in Sarasí Lilitika.
    • My friend and I went to the store by train.
    • After the rain ended, they drove us out onto the street with their dogs.
    • Why were we in the city yesterday?
    • Back home, it's monsoon season.
    • The truth shall set you free.
    • When will you stop wasting our time? (Hint: the verb is "stop.")
    • Put this above your other priorities.

  2. Select an appropriate phrasing for each combination of noun and case.
    • winter + ablative
    • we + accusative
    • yesterday + egressive
    • him + nominative
    • a schoolroom + accusative complement
    • academia + dative
    • home + dative
    • me + genitive
    • they + nominative complement