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Laní Ethika
Nouns IV
The -o declension
The Sarasí -o declension is more complicated than either the -e or -a declension, as it contains nouns from all grammatical genders. Originally, it signified something cultivated or civilized in Ksreskézaian languages, so it has always contained a spectrum of proper nouns of both sexes, as well as most inanimate objects that are considered artificial. In this last capacity, it complements the 'supernatural' -a feminine, although many supernatural feminine nouns have cognates in a different Oksirapho declension pattern, the 'obscure' declension. Aside from new name coinages, the set of feminine -o nouns is closed (non-expanding) in Lilitika, and these can be identified as female Ksreskézaians and their possessions.

Masculine nouns

'True' masculine nouns include:

  • male people
  • male animals
  • mass groups of people that are mostly male
  • possessions of males that would otherwise be mundane neuter objects
  • things with a deliberate male character (e.g. men's clothing and statues of men)
  • variants of objects that are perceived as more masculine than their alternatives (e.g. a large serving bowl or plate is more masculine than a small bowl or cup)
  • war

  • Artificial nouns

    These include:

  • created objects and materials
  • concepts relating to government and the economy
  • domesticated animals of indeterminate or irrelevant gender

  • Cultivated feminine nouns

    These are:

  • female Ksreskézai and their possessions, etc.
  • the emotions 'cruelty' and 'terror'
  • objects made of glass (if they would normally be mundane artificial nouns)

  • Forming an o-declension noun

    -oMasculineArtificialCultivated Feminine
    n.this does-o-oi-o-oi-o-ai this-ôn-(ô)noi-ôn-(ô)noi-ôn-(ô)nai
    ab.from this-(ô)fo-(ô)vin-(ô)fo-(ô)vin-(ô)fo-(ô)vin this-os-(ô)soi-os-(ô)soi-os-(ô)sai this-(ô)kôl-(ô)koi-(ô)kôl-(ô)koi-(ô)kan-(ô)kai
    g.of this-oní-iní-oní-ilí-oní-iní
    n. this-(o)ho-(o)hoi-(o)ho-(o)hoi-(o)ho-(o)hai
    a. c.make into this-(hô)n-(ô)nhoi-(hô)n-(ô)nhoi-(hô)n-(ô)nhai
    i.with this-(ô)wo-(ô)woi-(ô)wo-(ô)woi-(ô)wa-(ô)wai
    e.since this-(ô)pos-(ô)pos-(ô)pes-(ô)pes-(ô)pas-(ô)pas
    tem.during this-(ô)to-(ô)ltoi-(ô)to-(ô)ltoi-(ô)ta-(ô)tlai
    term.until this-(ô)kos-(ô)kos-(ô)kes-(ô)kes-(ô)kas-(ô)kas

    * Unlike other parenthesized letters in this chart, the (y) in this entry disappears after a consonant.

    There is a version of this table with the duplicates removed in the reference grammar; you may find this easier to memorize instead, as it highlights repeated forms. (But note that it is organized differently.)

    -ogegloko (war)galselío (civil services station)etesso (echo)
    n.this doesgeglokogeglokoigalselíogalselíoietessoetessai thisgeglokôngeglokônoigalselíôngalselínoietessônetessônai
    ab.from thisgeglokôfogeglokôvingalselífogalselívinetessôfoetessôvin thisgeglokosgeglokôsoigalselíosgalselísoietessosetessôsai thisgeglokkôl**geglokkoi**galselíkôlgalselíkoietessôkanetessôkai
    g.of thisgeglokonígeglokinígalselíonígalselílíetessoníetessiní
    n. thisgeglokohogeglokohoigalselíhogalselíhoietessohoetessohai
    a. c.make into thisgeglokôhôn*geglokônhoigalselíngalselínhoietessôhôn*etessônhai
    i.with thisgeglokwogeglokwoigalselíwogalselíwoietessôwaetessôwai
    e.since thisgeglokôposgeglokôposgalselípesgalselípesetessôpasetessôpas
    tem.during thisgeglokôtogeglokôltoigalselítogalselíltoietessôtaetessôtlai
    term.until thisgeglokkos**geglokkosgalselíkesgalselíkesetessôkasetessôkas

    * See note in Nouns II regarding s- + ha; the inserted vowel is silent.
    ** This doubled k represents an elided "okôkô"/"okôko" pattern to avoid reduplication.
    † 'y' disappears after í; see Basics II


    Memorize the following masculine nouns:
  • wekello: Ksreskézaian myth
  • okso: member of the Ksreskézaian species
  • sto: man
  • stipto: boy
  • terbezo: biological father
  • sabloko: victory
  • metzeko: smell of baking bread
  • milobo: hammer
  • lo: he
  • ro: you (male)
  • so: me (male)
  • gegloko: war

  • Memorize the following artificial nouns:
  • aktonelío: court room or court session
  • aitzelío: place of business
  • hairo: bowl
  • amnado: engraving
  • wizzo: button
  • tréo: sketch
  • trúzo: computer screen
  • súpto: short poem or prosaic witticism
  • olrelío: pantry
  • resapso: bedding
  • galselío: civil services station

  • Memorize the following cultivated feminine nouns:
  • alzesso: troubled thought
  • alzoko: terror
  • genesso: cruelty
  • zavo: maze or quandary
  • venzesso: wound (emotional or physical)
  • sayedo: ointment
  • etesso: echo
  • nozairo: glass jar, drinking glass

  • Exercises

    1. Form the following in Lilitika using the o-declension (ignoring articles):
      • his
      • sketches (accusative)
      • until victory
      • from the pantry, the Ksreskézaian [took] a glass jar
      • from (Ksreskézaian) myth
      • father! (vocative)
      • with buttons
      • at court

    2. Translate the following into English:
      • genessôpas
      • aitzelího
      • aktonelíto
      • milobowo
      • oksê
      • zavai

    3. Identify the gender, case, and inflection scheme of the following, if possible:
      • henwestiní
      • stawa
      • shistovin
      • aiteké
      • trésoi
      • etessôkai

      • thelo
      • illilí