Oksirapho Grammar

Sentence Structure and Word Order

The basic word order structure for a statement in Oksirapho is as follows:

<primary verb complex: <verb> <adverbs>> <subject complex: <noun> <adjectives> <postpositions>> <object complex: ... > <oblique case complexes <...> ...> <secondary verb complex: <verb particles>>

The noun complex

Many reconstructive models of Ksreskézaian language indicate only two noun classes, commonly interpreted as 'natural' and 'artificial' due to early Lilitic uses (or, later, 'feminine' and 'masculine,' respectively.) However, LPO exhibits three distinct noun categories, which are here referred to by their contemporary names: 'cultivated,' 'untamed,' and 'obscure.' The 'obscure' class, consisting of a handful of irregular nouns, was eliminated entirely in Oksí Lilitika and its descendants. Noun varieties are further subdivided into honour classes (see Honourifics, below) which affect what articles and postpositions should be used with them.

Oksirapho is rich in noun cases, although not to the extent of its descendants. It has just six: ergative, dative, accusative, subject (absolutive or nominative), genitive, and oblique. Typologically, Oksirapho has no true transitive alignment, as the cultivated and untamed categories mark nouns in ways that favour erg-abs alignment (experiential verbs) or nom-acc alignment (active verbs). Nouns used with intransitive verbs are always in the unmarked (subject) case.

case cultivated untamed obscure
singular plural singular plural singular plural
ergative oksivo oksivoi Sabtiba Sabtibai kvulope kvulopni
subject okso oksoi Sabta Sabtai kvulin kvulinni
accusative oksigo oksigoi Sabtiko Sabtiki kvuloke kvulokni
dative oksogl oksogli Sabtaki Sabtaiki kvulolni kvulolni
genitive okson oksoin Sabtan Sabtain kvulinni kvulinni
oblique oksov oksoiv Sabtav Sabtaiv kvuliv kvulivni


Adjectives in Oksirapho follow a descending immutability scheme, where those considered most essential to the definition of the object come first. Proper ordering of adjectives forms a key aspect of the honourific system (see below).

In general, adjectives adopt the inflections of the nouns they modify, with the conspicuous exception of genitives.


Unlike in Lilitika, number is not regarded as an attribute of a noun, except via the singular/plural distinction. Counts are instead expressed through special counting words which precede the noun they govern, e.g. rai oksoi, "three men." Two counting systems exist, a base-twelve positional system (derived from Rotomemi custom), and a more traditional compounding system, which is fundamentally multiplicative and highly redundant:

0 gon yolo/yola/yolin (none—used as a normal adjective with maximum precedence)
1 mít mít
2 lén lén
3 rai rai
4 kot kotkon
5 lak kot e mít
6 gtañ gtañnoñ
7 vespon gtañ e mít
8 súlon gtañ e lén, kot e kot, léntkot
9 tips gtañ e rai, rairai
10 tshnú léntkot e lén
11 éntkotlai léntkot e rai
12 mítpon stas, stasras, léntañ
13 mítmít léntañ e mít
14 mítlén léntañ e lén
15 mítlai léntañ e rai
16 mítpot léntañ e kot, railéntkot
17 mítlap léntañ e lak
18 mítban raitañ, stas é gtañ, gtañ e gtañ e gtañ
19 mítvesp raitañ e mít
20 mítfúl raitañ e lén, stas e súlon, kotlat
21 mítpit raitañ e rai, raives
22 mítfú raitañ e kot, raives e mít
23 mítént raitañ e lak, míton dek léntas
24 léntgon léntas
36 raigon raitas
48 kotgon kostas
60 lakgom laktakh
72 gtañgtoñ gtañgtakh
144 mítpongon stasrastas
288 léntgongon léntastas
1728 (123)mítpongongon stas t stasrastas

The positional system bears direct resemblance to the later Lilitika counting system, after adjustments to simplified phonotactics.


cultivated untamed obscure case definition
vozos úshve úshve gen from, out of necessity of
relos lerle lerle gen/obl/dat from/at/to above
kezkos zeñkse kezkos dat to achieve
sandos ansde sandsegen/obl/datfrom/at/to around
vensfos veme vensfos gen/obl/dat from/at/to under
khíleros khíske khíleros gen/obl/dat from/at/to beside
suvros ruvse suvros gen/obl/dat from/at/to in front of
doktos khedle doktos obl prior to
neptos metpe neptos obl after
elos ere ere gen during the time of
apermos marle marle gen inside
oskhos raskhe raskhe gen beyond, outside
glintgos lnige glintgos obl near
khelos ekle khelos obl despite
gondos gñedke gondos obl lacking

The primary verb complex

The verb complex in Oksirapho is broken up into two elements, primary and secondary. The secondary complex consists solely of various mood particles that influence the main verb, and can be omitted entirely for declarative statements unless they are subclauses. The primary complex, on the other hand, contains the verb itself and its supporting adverbs.

Verbs have four tenses (present, past, future, and aorist) and six moods (imperative, interrogative, declarative, potential, optative, and subjunctive), totalling just nine forms. Oksirapho has no inflectional system for representing aspect, a feature that Lilitika reborrowed from literary Oksiko; instead, this is represented with adverbs.

Verbs come in three categories: active, experiential, or stative. These affect their inflectional patterns.

mood/tense to be changed to be to go
aorist akhéo bho eghmé
present akhés bh'sé eghmis
past ankhro bhonr eghmor
future nakhlio bholo eghmel
imperative akhém bhmo eghim
interrogative akhéo dhim bho dhim egho dhim
potential akhéo kain bho kailo egho kain
optative akhé shilo bho sholo egho shilo
subjunctive akhé kaö bho ko eghmé ko


Adverbs are noun-like, in that they inflect in the same way the agent of the sentence does. For active and intransitive verbs, this means they end in -o, -oi, -a, -ai, -in, -inni; for experiential verbs, this is -ivo, -ivoi, -iba, -ibai, -ope, -opni. An adverb may therefore be indistinguishable from an adjective in some cases, though its position at the end of the primary verb complex (rather than after the subject) tends to be revealing. Discerning which of a sequence of many words with the same ending is the actual subject, however, can be challenging to beginners if the verb is not from the experiential family. Perhaps as an aid to making this less challenging, the adverbs marking aspect are always placed last.

adverb meaning
ato atoi ata ataiatinatin perfect aspect
ento entoi enta entaientinentin progressive aspect
ziro ziroi riza rizaizirinzirzinni compliantly
yolziro yolziroi yolzira yolziraiyolzirinyolzirzinni disobediently
aleziro aleziroi alezira aleziraialezirinalezirzinni did not
nato natoi nata natainatinnatin task left incomplete

Of particular interest is nato, which may also have its Lilitika meaning of unraveling or reversing a process, perhaps even completely. However, nato in Sotaní Oksirapho only communicates the outcome, and makes no judgment on the agent's goal. The complete sentence glokor nata (using gloké, "to prepare") might be translated as "she neglected to prepare," "she did not finish preparing," or "she sabotaged preparations," depending on context. In general adverbs of compliance are used with nato, making it less ambiguous, although it remains highly context-dependent.

The secondary verb complex

It is noteworthy that most final verb particles in Lilitika come not from the Oksirapho secondary verb complex, but from the mood particles in the primary verb complex.

verb particle meaning
l'édeductive (suggested from evidence)
k'úreportative (witnessed by a trusted source)



Oksirapho honourifics are two-syllable adjectives that follow the noun directly as the most essential quality of that noun. They function like titles, in that one should always employ them when invoking a name except on intimate terms, and also indicate definiteness, therefore functioning additionally as definite articles. Non-proper nouns lacking an honourific are taken to be indefinite, so equivalently it can be said that honourifics should not be used for indefinite nouns.

Mandated address: For individuals of very high standing, a subject clause with following honourific is required at the end of each paragraph or when the speaker is done talking. Occurring conspicuously out of place in all but the simplest sentences, this unambiguously resembles a vocative. If there is any ambiguity in the framing of the mandated address vs. the sentence, a pause may be introduced before it. Some rulers have been known to object to others using the mandated address in their presence, as they feel it is a waste of their time.

Honourifics can also be used independently as nouns (as they have compatible endings with their noun class), though these abbreviations are generally considered informal and would rarely appear in print as independent nouns.

Common honourifics

This list is by no means exhaustive, and customs varied regionally. The most significant differences were between the spheres of influence of Wemno (equatorial eastern continent) and Tévopío (equatorial western continent).

termnoun classmeaningnotes
ksocultivatedRightful King (Western)
dekocultivatedRightful King (Eastern)
ityocultivatedRegenta grave insult if the recipient sees himself as kso or deko
egrocultivatedAdvisor to the King
abtocultivatedOrder of the Touch of Sabta (Western)highest noble honours
alkzocultivatedOrder of the Touch of Salkza (Eastern)highest noble honours
ocultivatedViceroy (Western)
ocultivatedSenator (Eastern)
ocultivatedGreat Nobleof a royal, viceroyal, or regent's family but not otherwise specified
ocultivatedEsteemed Nobleof a family in which a member holds any of the above titles
ocultivatedLieutenant Colonel
ocultivatedOfficer Cadet

Adjective ordering rules