Sentence Structure and Word Order
The basic word order structure for a statement in Oksirapho is as follows:
<primary verb complex: <verb> <adverbs>> <subject complex: <noun> <adjectives> <postpositions>> <object complex: ... > <oblique case complexes <...> ...> <secondary verb complex: <verb particles>>
The noun complex
Many reconstructive models of Ksreskézaian language indicate only two noun classes, commonly interpreted as 'natural' and 'artificial' due to early Lilitic uses (or, later, 'feminine' and 'masculine,' respectively.) However, LPO exhibits three distinct noun categories, which are here referred to by their contemporary names: 'cultivated,' 'untamed,' and 'obscure.' The 'obscure' class, consisting of a handful of irregular nouns, was eliminated entirely in Oksí Lilitika and its descendants. Noun varieties are further subdivided into honour classes (see Honourifics
, below) which affect what articles and postpositions should be used with them.
Oksirapho is rich in noun cases, although not to the extent of its descendants. It has just six: ergative, dative, accusative, subject (absolutive or nominative), genitive, and oblique. Typologically, Oksirapho has no true transitive alignment, as the cultivated and untamed categories mark nouns in ways that favour erg-abs alignment (experiential verbs) or nom-acc alignment (active verbs). Nouns used with intransitive verbs are always in the unmarked (subject) case.
|case ||cultivated ||untamed ||obscure|
| ||singular ||plural ||singular ||plural ||singular ||plural|
|ergative ||oksivo ||oksivoi ||Sabtiba ||Sabtibai ||kvulope ||kvulopni|
|subject ||okso ||oksoi ||Sabta ||Sabtai ||kvulin ||kvulinni|
|accusative ||oksigo ||oksigoi ||Sabtiko ||Sabtiki ||kvuloke ||kvulokni|
|dative ||oksogl ||oksogli ||Sabtaki ||Sabtaiki ||kvulolni ||kvulolni|
|genitive ||okson ||oksoin ||Sabtan ||Sabtain ||kvulinni ||kvulinni|
|oblique ||oksov ||oksoiv ||Sabtav ||Sabtaiv ||kvuliv ||kvulivni|
Adjectives in Oksirapho follow a descending immutability
scheme, where those considered most essential to the definition of the object come first. Proper ordering of adjectives forms a key aspect of the honourific system (see below).
In general, adjectives adopt the inflections of the nouns they modify, with the conspicuous exception of genitives.
Unlike in Lilitika, number is not regarded as an attribute of a noun, except via the singular/plural distinction. Counts are instead expressed through special counting words which precede the noun they govern, e.g. rai oksoi
, "three men." Two counting systems exist, a base-twelve positional system (derived from Rotomemi custom), and a more traditional compounding system, which is fundamentally multiplicative and highly redundant:
|0 ||gon ||yolo/yola/yolin (none—used as a normal adjective with maximum precedence)|
|1 ||mít ||mít|
|2 ||lén ||lén|
|3 ||rai ||rai|
|4 ||kot ||kotkon|
|5 ||lak ||kot e mít|
|6 ||gtañ ||gtañnoñ|
|7 ||vespon ||gtañ e mít|
|8 ||súlon ||gtañ e lén, kot e kot, léntkot|
|9 ||tips ||gtañ e rai, rairai|
|10 ||tshnú ||léntkot e lén|
|11 ||éntkotlai ||léntkot e rai|
|12 ||mítpon ||stas, stasras, léntañ|
|13 ||mítmít ||léntañ e mít|
|14 ||mítlén ||léntañ e lén|
|15 ||mítlai ||léntañ e rai|
|16 ||mítpot ||léntañ e kot, railéntkot|
|17 ||mítlap ||léntañ e lak|
|18 ||mítban ||raitañ, stas é gtañ, gtañ e gtañ e gtañ|
|19 ||mítvesp ||raitañ e mít|
|20 ||mítfúl ||raitañ e lén, stas e súlon, kotlat|
|21 ||mítpit ||raitañ e rai, raives|
|22 ||mítfú ||raitañ e kot, raives e mít|
|23 ||mítént ||raitañ e lak, míton dek léntas|
|24 ||léntgon ||léntas|
|36 ||raigon ||raitas|
|48 ||kotgon ||kostas|
|60 ||lakgom ||laktakh|
|72 ||gtañgtoñ ||gtañgtakh|
|144 ||mítpongon ||stasrastas|
|288 ||léntgongon ||léntastas|
|1728 (123)||mítpongongon ||stas t stasrastas|
The positional system bears direct resemblance to the later Lilitika counting system
, after adjustments to simplified phonotactics.
|cultivated ||untamed ||obscure ||case ||definition|
|vozos ||úshve ||úshve ||gen ||from, out of necessity of|
|relos ||lerle ||lerle ||gen/obl/dat ||from/at/to above|
|kezkos ||zeñkse ||kezkos ||dat ||to achieve|
|sandos ||ansde ||sandse||gen/obl/dat||from/at/to around|
|vensfos ||veme ||vensfos ||gen/obl/dat ||from/at/to under|
|khíleros ||khíske ||khíleros ||gen/obl/dat ||from/at/to beside|
|suvros ||ruvse ||suvros ||gen/obl/dat ||from/at/to in front of|
|doktos ||khedle ||doktos ||obl ||prior to|
|neptos ||metpe ||neptos ||obl ||after|
|elos ||ere ||ere ||gen ||during the time of|
|apermos ||marle ||marle ||gen ||inside|
|oskhos ||raskhe ||raskhe ||gen ||beyond, outside|
|glintgos ||lnige ||glintgos ||obl ||near|
|khelos ||ekle ||khelos ||obl ||despite|
|gondos ||gñedke ||gondos ||obl ||lacking|
The primary verb complex
The verb complex in Oksirapho is broken up into two elements, primary and secondary. The secondary complex consists solely of various mood particles that influence the main verb, and can be omitted entirely for declarative statements unless they are subclauses. The primary complex, on the other hand, contains the verb itself and its supporting adverbs.
Verbs have four tenses (present, past, future, and aorist) and six moods (imperative, interrogative, declarative, potential, optative, and subjunctive), totalling just nine forms. Oksirapho has no inflectional system for representing aspect, a feature that Lilitika reborrowed from literary Oksiko; instead, this is represented with adverbs.
Verbs come in three categories: active, experiential, or stative. These affect their inflectional patterns.
|mood/tense ||to be changed ||to be ||to go|
|aorist ||akhéo ||bho ||eghmé|
|present ||akhés ||bh'sé ||eghmis|
|past ||ankhro ||bhonr ||eghmor|
|future ||nakhlio ||bholo ||eghmel|
|imperative ||akhém ||bhmo ||eghim|
|interrogative ||akhéo dhim ||bho dhim ||egho dhim|
|potential ||akhéo kain ||bho kailo ||egho kain|
|optative ||akhé shilo ||bho sholo ||egho shilo|
|subjunctive ||akhé kaö ||bho ko ||eghmé ko|
Adverbs are noun-like, in that they inflect in the same way the agent of the sentence does. For active and intransitive verbs, this means they end in -o, -oi, -a, -ai, -in, -inni; for experiential verbs, this is -ivo, -ivoi, -iba, -ibai, -ope, -opni. An adverb may therefore be indistinguishable from an adjective in some cases, though its position at the end of the primary verb complex (rather than after the subject) tends to be revealing. Discerning which of a sequence of many words with the same ending is the actual subject, however, can be challenging to beginners if the verb is not from the experiential family. Perhaps as an aid to making this less challenging, the adverbs marking aspect are always placed last.
|ato ||atoi ||ata ||atai||atin||atin ||perfect aspect|
|ento ||entoi ||enta ||entai||entin||entin ||progressive aspect|
|ziro ||ziroi ||riza ||rizai||zirin||zirzinni ||compliantly|
|yolziro ||yolziroi ||yolzira ||yolzirai||yolzirin||yolzirzinni ||disobediently|
|aleziro ||aleziroi ||alezira ||alezirai||alezirin||alezirzinni ||did not|
|nato ||natoi ||nata ||natai||natin||natin ||task left incomplete|
Of particular interest is nato
, which may also have its Lilitika meaning
of unraveling or reversing a process, perhaps even completely. However, nato
in Sotaní Oksirapho only communicates the outcome, and makes no judgment on the agent's goal. The complete sentence glokor nata
, "to prepare") might be translated as "she neglected to prepare," "she did not finish preparing," or "she sabotaged preparations," depending on context. In general adverbs of compliance are used with nato
, making it less ambiguous, although it remains highly context-dependent.
The secondary verb complex
It is noteworthy that most final verb particles in Lilitika come not from the Oksirapho secondary verb complex, but from the mood particles in the primary verb complex.
|verb particle ||meaning|
|l'é||deductive (suggested from evidence)|
|k'ú||reportative (witnessed by a trusted source)|
Oksirapho honourifics are two-syllable adjectives that follow the noun directly as the most essential quality of that noun. They function like titles, in that one should always employ them when invoking a name except on intimate terms, and also indicate definiteness, therefore functioning additionally as definite articles. Non-proper nouns lacking an honourific are taken to be indefinite, so equivalently it can be said that honourifics should not be used for indefinite nouns.
Mandated address: For individuals of very high standing, a subject clause with following honourific is required at the end of each paragraph or when the speaker is done talking. Occurring conspicuously out of place in all but the simplest sentences, this unambiguously resembles a vocative. If there is any ambiguity in the framing of the mandated address vs. the sentence, a pause may be introduced before it. Some rulers have been known to object to others using the mandated address in their presence, as they feel it is a waste of their time.
Honourifics can also be used independently as nouns (as they have compatible endings with their noun class), though these abbreviations are generally considered informal and would rarely appear in print as independent nouns.
This list is by no means exhaustive, and customs varied regionally. The most significant differences were between the spheres of influence of Wemno (equatorial eastern continent) and Tévopío (equatorial western continent).
|kso||cultivated||Rightful King (Western)|
|deko||cultivated||Rightful King (Eastern)|
|ityo||cultivated||Regent||a grave insult if the recipient sees himself as kso or deko|
|egro||cultivated||Advisor to the King|
|abto||cultivated||Order of the Touch of Sabta (Western)||highest noble honours|
|alkzo||cultivated||Order of the Touch of Salkza (Eastern)||highest noble honours|
|o||cultivated||Great Noble||of a royal, viceroyal, or regent's family but not otherwise specified|
|o||cultivated||Esteemed Noble||of a family in which a member holds any of the above titles|
Adjective ordering rules